Resource Container (RCO)

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The file extension in PSP and PS3 is RCO that seems to be the acronym of Resource Container Objet

The file signature (aka magic number) from PSP (in little endian) is PRF that seems to be the acronym of Playstation Resource File

RCO contents are loaded by other firmware functions as XMBML setting files, and XMB modules (also known as .sprx plugins), see Plugin Interfaces and VSH


Text for all languages, textures, sounds (for cursor navigation, trophy unlocking, etc...) and models

RCO format Embedded code Text Textures Sounds Models Script
Generic RCOXML utf8, utf16, utf32 gim, png, jpg, tif, gif, bmp vag, unknown0x0 gmo PlayStation JavaScript
PS3 specific RCOXML utf16 gim, png, jpg vag n/a n/a


RCO version Firmware Release date RCO format specifications
Toc trees Toc compression Other Notes
0x55 PSP icon 0.6.5 pre-retail 9 uncompressed archaic rco format, header is 16 bytes smaller
0x70 PSP icon 1.00 2004 / 12 / 12 10 uncompressed
0x71 PSP icon 1.50~2.50 2005 / 3 / 24 10 uncompressed normal toc up to this version
0x90 PSP icon 2.60 2005 / 11 / 29 10 zlib compressed toc implemented
0x95 PSP icon 2.70~2.71 2006 / 4 / 25 10 rlz compressed toc implemented
0x96 PSP icon 2.80~3.40 2006 / 7 / 27 10 the toc seems to be compressed in parts
0x97 PS3 icon 1.00~1.54 2006 / 11 / 11 10 pre-retail PS3 DECR firmware v0.85 uses this version too
0x100 PSP icon 3.50~6.61 2007 / 5 / 31 10
0x102 PS3 icon 1.60~1.70 2007 / 3 / 22 10
0x104 PS3 icon 1.80~1.82 2007 / 5 / 24 10
0x105 PS3 icon 1.90~1.94 2007 / 7 / 24 10
0x106 PS3 icon 2.00~2.17 2007 / 11 / 8 10
0x107 PS3 icon 2.20~2.80 2008 / 3 / 25 10
0x108 PS3 icon 3.00~3.01 2009 / 9 / 1 10
0x110 PS3 icon 3.10~3.74 2009 / 11 / 19 10
0x120 PS3 icon 4.00~4.25 2011 / 11 / 29 10
0x130 PS3 icon 4.30~4.76 2012 / 10 / 24 10

RCO Structure[edit]

Based on RCO File Format (outdated) and rcomage source


Offset Length Example Name Notes
0x00 0x04 46 52 50 00 prf_signature In PS3 is "FRP" (big endian). In PSP is "PRF" (little endian)
0x04 0x04 00 00 00 97 prf_version See Discussion page
0x08 0x04 00 00 00 00 prf_unk
0x0C 0x04 00 00 00 00 prf_compress 0x00=uncompressed, 0x10=ZLIB, 0x20=RLZ, see Discussion page
0x10 0x04 00 00 00 A4 toc_main_tree_offset
0x14 0x04 FF FF FF FF toc_script_tree_offset
0x18 0x04 FF FF FF FF toc_text_tree_offset
0x1C 0x04 FF FF FF FF toc_sound_tree_offset
0x20 0x04 FF FF FF FF toc_model_tree_offset
0x24 0x04 FF FF FF FF toc_image_tree_offset
0x28 0x04 FF FF FF FF toc_unk
0x2C 0x04 FF FF FF FF toc_font_tree_offset
0x30 0x04 00 00 00 CC toc_object_tree_offset
0x34 0x04 FF FF FF FF toc_anim_tree_offset
0x38 0x04 00 00 01 D4 str_text_table_offset
0x3C 0x04 00 00 00 00 str_text_table_length
0x40 0x04 00 00 01 D4 str_label_table_offset
0x44 0x04 00 00 00 1C str_label_table_length
0x48 0x04 00 00 01 F0 str_event_table_offset
0x4C 0x04 00 00 00 04 str_event_table_length
0x50 0x04 FF FF FF FF ptr_text_table_offset
0x54 0x04 00 00 00 00 ptr_text_table_length
0x58 0x04 FF FF FF FF ptr_image_table_offset
0x5C 0x04 00 00 00 00 ptr_image_table_length
0x60 0x04 FF FF FF FF ptr_model_table_offset
0x64 0x04 00 00 00 00 ptr_model_table_length
0x68 0x04 FF FF FF FF ptr_sound_table_offset
0x6C 0x04 00 00 00 00 ptr_sound_table_length
0x70 0x04 00 00 01 CC ptr_object_table_offset
0x74 0x04 00 00 00 08 ptr_object_table_length
0x78 0x04 FF FF FF FF ptr_anim_table_offset
0x7C 0x04 00 00 00 00 ptr_anim_table_length
0x80 0x04 FF FF FF FF dat_image_table_offset
0x84 0x04 00 00 00 00 dat_image_table_length
0x88 0x04 FF FF FF FF dat_sound_table_offset
0x8C 0x04 00 00 00 00 dat_sound_table_length
0x90 0x04 FF FF FF FF dat_model_table_offset
0x94 0x04 00 00 00 00 dat_model_table_length
0x98 0x0C FF FF FF FF .. . dat_unk
  • All offsets in the header are absolute


The TOC (table of contents) works as an index of all the .RCO contents, is composed by entries that follows a hierarchy of parent/children/siblings, it can be represented as an .XML file composed by elements and its attributes (see XML Tree and RCOXML Coding)


Every entry starts with an area of 0x28 length that represents an XML element, it specifyes the entry_type, a label identifyer for this entry (optional) and some info related with the TOC internal structure and its hierarchy relationship with other entries. All offset are relative

RCO TOC entry common area

Offset Length Type Name PSP icon PS3 icon Example (TOC) Example (XML) Notes
0x00 0x04 int entry_type Yes Yes 01 01 / 00 00 <MainTree name="label" /> First byte = type, second byte = id, last 2 bytes = padding
0x04 0x04 int entry_label_offset Yes Yes 00 00 00 00 Label offset relative to the start of the label_string_table (optional)
0x08 0x04 int attributes_offset Yes Yes 00 00 00 00 represents XML hierarchy Attributes offset relative to the start of this entry (optional)
0x0C 0x04 int children_offset Yes Yes 00 00 00 28 First children offset relative to the start of this entry (optional)
0x10 0x04 int children_number Yes Yes 00 00 00 00 Number of subentries
0x14 0x04 int next_sibling_offset Yes Yes 00 00 00 00 Next sibling offset relative to the start of this entry (optional)
0x18 0x04 int prev_sibling_offset Yes Yes 00 00 00 00 Previous sibling offset relative to the start of this entry (optional)
0x1C 0x04 int parent_offset Yes Yes 00 00 00 00 This entry offset relative to the start of the parent entry
0x20 0x08 unk toc_entry_unk Yes Yes 00 00 00 00 .. . no XML representation Unknown


Attributes are located after the element definition (at entry relative offset 0x28), only exists for the elements that uses attributes, each entry_type uses different attributes, are explained in detail in other wiki pages

RCO TOC entry types

ID (second byte) wiki pages related
0x00 0x01 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x05 0x06 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x0D 0x0E 0x0F 0x10 0x11 0x12 0x13 0x14 0x15 0x16 0x17 0x18 0x19 0x1A 0x1B 0x1C 0x1D 0x1E 0x1F
(first byte)
0x01 unk MainTree RCOXML Coding
0x02 ScriptTree RCOXML Script
0x03 TextTree Text RCOXML Texts
0x04 ImageTree Image RCOXML Images
0x05 ModelTree Model RCOXML Models
0x06 SoundTree Sound RCOXML Sounds
0x07 FontTree Font RCOXML Fonts
0x08 ObjectTree Page Plane Button XMenu XMList XList Progress Scroll MList MItem unk XItem Text ModelObject Spin Action ItemSpin Group LList LItem Edit Clock IList IItem Icon UButton unk CheckboxGroup CheckboxItem Meter EditBox RCOXML Objects
0x09 AnimTree Anim MoveTo Recolour Rotate Resize Fade Delay FireEvent Lock Unlock SlideOut RCOXML Animations
  • The entry_types wich name contains the word tree (as example MainTree) are special and doesnt uses attributes, MainTree is always located as the first entry, doesn't have a parent, and doesn't have any previous or next "sibling", the maximun number posible of childrens for MainTree is 8 (containing all the other "trees"). The other "trees" (as example imageTree or soundTree) are siblings and are the childrens of "MainTree", Every one of those "trees" contains a variable number of entry_types that are its childrens
  • The RCOXML Objects (entry_types starting with 0x08) and RCOXML Animations (entry_types starting with 0x09) where the attributes can be grouped in standard attributes (used by most entryes of this type) and specific attributes (different for every entry_type). The standard attributes are always located before the specific attributes
  • First two bytes are swapped based on architecture (PSP in little endian, PS3 in big endian). The table shows the values in big endian

Some of the attributes are a reference to load other entry

RCO TOC reference types

reference_type pointer Method Loader Loads From Example (XML) Notes
0xFFFF0000 0xFFFFFFFF n/a All Nothing None <Entry reference="nothing">
0x04000000 relative event: RCOXML Objects
RCOXML Animations
Code function Associated .SPRX <Entry event="event:native:/runFuctionX">
ScriptTree/Script File inside RCO <Entry event="event:script:/main/runFuctionX">
0x04010000 # (0-based) text: RCOXML Objects
TextTree/Text Strings inside RCO <Entry text="text:msg_mytext">
0x04020000 absolute image: RCOXML Objects
ImageTree/Image File inside RCO <Entry image="image:tex_mytexture">
0x04030000 absolute model: RCOXML Objects ModelTree/Model File inside RCO <Entry model="model:mymodel">
0x04040000 absolute ? sound: ? associated .SPRX SoundTree/Sound File inside RCO <Entry sound="sound:mysound"> ? speculation
0x04050000 absolute font: RCOXML Objects FontTree/Font File inside RCO ? <Entry font="font:fontstyle_sanserif">
0x04060000 absolute ? ref_type_unk RCOXML Objects ? UnknownTree/Unknown File inside RCO ? speculation
0x04070000 absolute object2: RCOXML Objects ObjectTree/Object RCOXML code <Entry object2="object2:plane_myplane"> speculation
0x04080000 absolute anim: RCOXML Animations AnimTree/Animation RCOXML code <Entry anim="anim:myanimation">
0x04090000 absolute object: RCOXML Animations ObjectTree/Object RCOXML code <Entry object="object:plane_myplane">
  • A reference attribute is composed by two values, the first is the reference_type that indicates the "tree" of the entry that is going to be loaded, and the second is a pointer to a text string with the label of the entry that is going to be loaded
  • The reference_type event doesnt loads an entry from a "tree" though, it runs a code function from either a .sprx (by storing the text native:/ as part of the text string inside the RCO) or from a VSMX script (by storing the text script:/ as part of the text string inside the RCO)
  • First two bytes are swapped based on architecture (PSP in little endian, PS3 in big endian). The table shows the values in big endian


example placeholder
  • Example here following the other example of the header at top of the page, using color codes like the examples in Discussion page
  • With MainTree-AnimTree-Animation-Fade (because i think is the minimal example that shows how trees are made and the entry_type "fade" that uses "standard" and "specific" attributes)
  • And MainTree-ObjectTree-Page (because the animation needs to be linked to an object by using a reference, otherway rcomage will return an error when trying to compile it)

Pointer tables[edit]

This area works as an external index of the TOC, stores absolute pointers to all the chiildren of the "tree" TOC entries, is composed by 6 tables in this order:

  • text_tree_pointer_table
  • image_tree_pointer_table
  • model_tree_pointer_table
  • sound_tree_pointer_table
  • object_tree_pointer_table
  • anim_tree_pointer_table

  • Every pointer is 0x04 bytes length
  • The other "trees" children that doesnt uses a pointer table are: MainTree (is not needed because its children are the other "trees"), ScriptTree (because doesnt have children), and FontTree because ?????
  • The existence of this area with pointers seems to be related with the fact that is posible to use a whole file compression (by setting it in the header at offset 0x0C) that compresses the TOC. Also when loading the .RCO file in the RAM of the console probably is "cropped" in parts, the TOC is decompresed and kept in a memory area with the other TOC's from the other RCO files (for fast selective access to the .RCO contents, and for performance) and is posible to read the relative offsets directlly from the TOC's and deprecate the absolute offsets from the pointers tables

String tables[edit]

This area stores the text strings used by the TOC entries, is composed by 3 tables in this order:

  • text_string_table (to store localized language texts from TextTree entries)
  • label_string_table (to store the labels of all the entries that uses labels)
  • event_string_table (to store the values of the attributes used by some entries, either "native" or "script" events)

  • Strings are null terminated (ends in 0x00)
  • Strings are aligned to 4 bytes boundary (padding at the end of every string when needed)

Data tables[edit]

This area stores files that can be compressed individually (or not) as specifyed by the attributes of some entries in the TOC, is composed by 3 tables in this order:

  • image_data_table (to store the files used by ImageTree entries)
  • sound_data_table (to store the files used by SoundTree entries)
  • model_data_table (to store the files used by ModelTree entries)

  • Files are aligned to 4 bytes boundary (padding at the end of every file when needed)

RCO compression methods[edit]

When the TOC table is compressed at beginning there are 3 values related with the compression (otherway if the table is not compressed this 3 values doesnt exists)

Offset Length Name Example Notes Speculation
0x00 0x04 lenPacked Packed size of all the table sections
0x04 0x04 lenUnpacked Unpacked size of all the table sections
0x08 0x04 lenLongestText length of the longest language's text data (unpacked)
if the compressed area doesn't contains any language text the value is 0

VSH access to RCO contents[edit]

See the VSH_Exports#paf "paf" VSH exports, most of them uses the internal "official" names of lot of stuff related with RCO (i guess there are a lot of names used in this wiki that was taken from rcomage or by deduction that should be replaced by the official names), and can help to understand how the firmware processes and accesses to the internal content of .RCO files (it can help a lot to any tool involved in processing .RCO files to make it most efficient, simple and accurate posible)

  • Related with the internal RCO | XML DOM structure
    • PAF_Resource_DOMGetNodeChildByID, PAF_Resource_DOMGetNodeChildByPos, PAF_Resource_DOMGetNodeData, PAF_Resource_DOMGetNodeFirstChild, PAF_Resource_DOMGetNodeID, PAF_Resource_DOMGetNodeNext, PAF_Resource_DOMGetNodeType, PAF_Resource_GetPageNodeByID, PAF_Resource_GetWidgetNodeByID, PAF_Resource_ResolveRefNode, PAF_Resource_ResolveRefString, PAF_Resource_ResolveRefWString (It seems some are missing though)
  • Related with RCOXML Objects
    • This seems to be the complete list of RCOXML Objects internal names (It seems some are missing though)
      • 0x546B3D02 returns "PhWidget", 0x41BBFE5E returns "PhScene", 0x10DEDCC7 returns "PhPlane", 0xE36C18F5 returns "PhPlaneDiv", 0x24A5BD6B returns "PhButton", 0xB7DFCE90 returns "PhText", 0x9207F4 returns "PhScroll", 0xBA6D149A returns "PhLabelPrim", 0xC88CA4B2 returns "PhLevelMeter", 0xE801C345 returns "PhProgress", 0xBF66BF2D returns "PhCheckBox", 0x703117AD returns "PhXmBar", 0x4FF7B8A9 returns "PhXmList", 0xC84FD77B returns "PhXmItem", 0x4C36ABBB returns "PhItemSpin", 0xCA9160F6 returns "PhNumSpin", 0x59A11C82 returns "PhNumSpin", 0xD64EDE7C returns "PhList", 0xF7630798 returns "PhInfoList", 0xA98865F8 returns "PhMenuList", 0x90F4F801 returns "PhCheckBoxList", 0xDDD4ACF6 returns "PhLabelText", 0x545D47A2 returns "PhClock", 0x3806365F returns "PhIPAddr"
    • The names of the attributes ordered by groups (there are a lot)
      • As example: 0xDEF981C4 _ZN3paf8PhXmList7FocusInEf, 0x814B3D90 _ZN3paf8PhXmList8FocusOutEf this two seems to be the attributes FocusOut and FocusIn from the object XmList